莫道不消魂命的背后总有血色的浪漫。产生于十八世纪末十九世纪初的浪漫主义思潮,在空想社会主义勾勒的诗意蓝图中,在启蒙思想家“理性胜利”的幻影破灭后,以法莫道不消魂国大革莫道不消魂命为契机,以德国古典哲学为动力,执着的开启一个抒写诗性的浪漫主义文学新纪元。

为了反对资本主义社会的阶半夜凉初透级压迫,德国英国提出了“回到中世纪”的口号。浪漫主义文学虽然根源于法莫道不消魂国,却最早兴起于德国,18世纪70年代爆发的“狂飙突进”运动,对浪漫主义文学的兴起产生了很大的孕育、催生和推动影响。在不受古典主义清规戒律束缚的中世纪文学研究热潮中,最先出现的是德国的“耶拿派”以及浪漫主义诗人海涅(1797-1856)。

在英国,以华兹华斯、柯勒律治和骚塞为代表的“湖畔派”诗人,也同样讴歌中世纪宗法生活,三大诗人拜伦、雪莱和济慈将英国的浪漫主义文学推到顶峰。历史小说家、诗人司各特的去世标志着英国浪漫主义文学的结束。相对于德英两国,法莫道不消魂国的浪漫主义文学发展缓慢而冗长,早期代表是夏多布里昂和史达尔夫人,雨果如一颗璀璨的流星,由辉煌到陨落,抒写着法莫道不消魂国浪漫主义文学的昌盛与衰落。其间的杰出代表作家有乔治.桑和大仲马。

半夜凉初透国经历了古典主义和感伤主义文学的洗礼后,面对卫国战争的胜利以及12月党人起义呼唤,欣然接受了歌颂自由、向往民瑞脑消金兽主的浪漫主义文学,代表作家有茹科夫斯基、雷列耶夫和普希金。美国在民族文化独立的要求下,在19世纪初由欧文、库柏最先兴起浪漫主义文学,由诗人惠特曼引向高潮,最后随着惠特曼的逝世而走向衰落。

如果说浪漫主义文学是资本主义确立初期血气方刚的冲动,那么随着资产阶半夜凉初透级政权的日益巩固和发展,浪漫主义转而发展为更为深沉冷静的批判现实主义文学。资产阶半夜凉初透级、封建贵族阶半夜凉初透级以及无产阶半夜凉初透级的矛盾日益尖锐,“理性王国”再次破灭,浪漫主义的激情已被残酷的社会现实消磨殆尽,对社会的抽象抗东篱把酒黄昏后议和空洞呼唤已不能满足时代要求。取而代之的是真实表现现实生活、典型再现社会风貌、深入解剖社会矛盾的批判现实主义文学。各国由于各自的社会政治结构以及革莫道不消魂命斗争主流,在文学创作上也表现出不同的韵律和特点。
从19世纪30年代开始,批判现实主义最先在资本主义发展比较完备的法、英等西欧先进资本主义国家开始,逐渐向东欧发展。法莫道不消魂国固有的浪漫天真特质体现在文学上也是百家争鸣、求同存异,斯丹达尔、巴尔扎克、梅里美代表的批判现实主义文学在推翻波旁王朝,1830年的七月革莫道不消魂命后即崭露头角,是对浪漫主义的反拨,同时也是继承发展,既有巴尔扎克“社会百科全书”般的广博冷静,又有梅里美的辛辣叛逆和异国情调。
文学步伐一直比较稳健成熟的英国,在宪有暗香盈袖章运动的宏大背景下,小说家伸探出锐利的触角首先揭露资本主义垢蒂深厚的劳资矛盾中,然而曼彻斯特政治经济学派的自由竞争学说和边沁的功利主义哲学的流行使得英国批判文学不如法、俄辛辣,透视出改良主义的色彩。

长期饱受农奴制折磨的俄半夜凉初透国,拿起批判现实主义文学的武器,直面风暴、揭露真实、械斗压迫,铸就了俄半夜凉初透国现实主义文学的黄金时代。普希金作为浪漫主义和现实主义的转承人,影响了大批俄半夜凉初透国现实主义作家,果戈理的讽刺小说为现实主义文学奠定理论基础,俄半夜凉初透国人民“多余人”的典型形象在车尔尼雪夫斯基后才转型为“新人”形象,俄半夜凉初透国现实主义文学史即是一部社会政治革莫道不消魂命的写真史。

这一时期的东欧北欧都是在反对异族奴役和封建专人比黄花瘦制,争取自由独立的背景下发展的,其中有波兰的密兹凯维奇和显克微奇,保加利亚的民族解放领袖报特夫,匈牙利民族诗人山陀尔,丹麦童话作家安徒生,瑞典戏剧家斯特林保,还有对中国现代文学进步思潮有重要影响的挪威戏剧家易卜生。
美国独立战争以后,南北方矛盾与日俱增,斯托夫人描写蓄奴制的残暴小说《汤姆叔叔的小屋》将处于警戒线的南北矛盾一举触发,同时也将批判现实主义文学萌芽催促成熟。70年代以后,马克.吐温与欧.亨利将小说的批判性由显态转入隐态,幽默中含有辛酸泪水。美国黑人文学是南北战争后的后遗症,继承战斗反抗的传统,黑人小说家契斯纳特是美国黑人文学的现实主义开创者。

十九世纪末二十世纪初人类即将迈入的一个新时代。批判现实主义文学进来的时侯踌躇满志神采飞扬,以为会有更大的权力来控制周遭的世界,可在这个世界里,它却发现自己无家可归,发现自己的理性再不能保证它满意地回答“人是什么?”。历史的激变、自然科学的发展和社会矛盾的复杂化使十九世纪末成为各种社会哲学思潮冲突并存的时期,人类撕破了浪漫主义的梦想,忍受了批判现实主义的鞭笞,到了新的世纪转轨点却迷失了自我,是现代科学特别是哲学的发展帮助人类逃脱了这种尴尬。哲学告诉人们在理性心灵的背后还隐藏着非理性的另一面,它始终影响并阻碍着理性的运用,叔本华的“生存意志”、尼采的“酒神冲动”、柏格森的“生命之流”,非理性的注入,使主流文学受到冲击,形成多元格局,虽然创造力比以往更丰盛,然而却自由飘荡、不明方向。法莫道不消魂国的“巴黎公社文学”是早在批判现实主义文学时代就已出现端倪的“法莫道不消魂国工人诗歌”、“英国宪有暗香盈袖章文学”以及“德国革莫道不消魂命诗歌”为代表的无产阶半夜凉初透级文学形态。被统称为苦闷、彷徨、违反传统艺术法则的“颓废文学”的三大构成流派分别是“自然主义”、“唯美主义”和“象征主义”,其中龚古尔兄弟、左拉、莫泊桑是“自然主义文学”的代表,法莫道不消魂国的戈蒂耶和英国的王尔德是“唯美主义”的代表,由波德莱尔和莫雷亚斯为代表的“象征主义”力图重新把握文学特征,探求主客观的新契合点。这一时期的非主流文学都是以哲学为先导,经由形而上学者的方式把一切责任推诿给了人类生命中盲目无因、难以捉摸又不可遏止的本能冲动,到了后来终于由弗洛伊德用医生的眼光为上述结论做了更为深入细致的实证分析,试探着过渡到下一个世纪的文学。

Written on 10月 12th, 2005 , 专业研究 Tags:

Under the atmosphere of efficiency and practiced disseminated widespread, our society put more and more stress on people’s appearance. Although some antique and rigid educations have transplanted the principle into our minds, such as “interior is much more important than appearance” or “appearance always blinds people’s eyes”, no matter accept or not, the reality is, appearance especially clothes inevitably and necessarily changing people behavior.

First and foremost, clothes inevitably influence the way the others judged one person. A good case in point is the situation of interview, as the dominate element of impression, clothes catch people’s eye ball instantly and there is no time to wait one to prove the interior truth one behind clothes. Change an angle to say, people deem to feel frustrate if lose the opportunities because of clothes. Sequent, one’s behavior will lack of confidence and how can a person be successful in anything without confidence?

Another cardinal aspect that would gain credence is that, to some extent, clothes reflect the character and habit of people. Judging people from the triviality is a principle accepted by most. Clothes, as the necessary of life and the first thing repeated everyday, should be taken into account when judging one comprehensively. Hardly can trust a person the one cannot done well in such basic thing.

The third paramount facet stems from some abstract value of clothes which influence people by reminding one’s profession and identity. Surpass the applied practice of keeping warm and looking good, clothes act as a symbol of every profession discipline in society, which is also the origin of professional uniforms. People must realize one thing: the moment you put on uniforms, you are claiming to the world silently that you are professional, endowed responsibilities and moral contracts, hanged ahead the pride and promise.

All these factor aforementioned drive a remarkable conclusion that different clothes influence the way people behave. In fact, these inclusion dates back to Genesis of Bible, when Adam and Eve stole the forbidden fruits in Eden, when they use the leaves as the first clothes, human beings behavior destined to be influence by clothes.

Written on 10月 10th, 2005 , English writing exercise

The process of study is a long and hard way to accumulate knowledge which is somewhat similar to explore a mountain for alpinists. The institute of classes and classification of subjects in university play a role just as compasses to climbers. So it is a litter bit haste to say that it is better for students to take classes in many subjects, or vice verse. Different stage requires different knowledge systems.

First and foremost, when knowing a mountain for the first time, a careful climber should gather information as much as possible, in order to form a generally understanding of it, which is also the most important foundation of a successful exploration. Similarly, for university study, it’s much the same. It’s reasonable for undergraduate students to take classes in many subjects. For one hand, it might broaden horizons of students and stimulate their potential abilities; for the other hand, it gives a systematic overall foundation linked different fields of knowledge which cultivate students to consider comprehensively.

After the period of generally understanding, a mature climber should make out his own blueprints based on the experience of the first period. Likewise, a graduate student who has possessed an academic inclination through the synthetic study in many subjects could build a theory more reliable and sensible for further research. The summit, the only purpose of this period, needed specialized study to attain. Obviously, the summit is the single aim and the solitary goal, but without the academically biased circumstance offered by the first period, our spiritual outlook will be different, we would lay less stress on “fact and figures” and more on applied psychology and the capacity to get along with arounds which distract us to go out of our way.

A good point in case is myself experience. Public administration and literature, two degrees I endeavored to receive during my undergraduate study, make me deeply understand both of these two fields of subjects. Compared with the counterparts, I have a better writing skill and abstract comprehension to study public administration and also more rational to grasp literature. As a sequent, I form a comprise method and unique style for myself. I also plan the research direction--culture industry, which is a connection of administration and literature.

In a final analysis, the purpose of education is to conduct students until they have from their independent study methods. After all, the students are not the mechanical accessories which can be fabricated in the same mode. The situation should be changed according to every student and depend on the circumstances.

Written on 10月 8th, 2005 , English writing exercise

Earth, the mother of human beings, has contributed its abundant resources to us for billions of years. However, in the meantime of bestowal of the earth, human beings have damaged the earth unconsciously and this damage is showing itself, threatening human society in return.

First of all, the growing industry destroyed the environment so seriously that more and more species in the earth have extinguished (been extinct), even those survivable species are facing pollution. The terrible infectious disease SARS is the warning bell to human beings. Coincident with concerns about the accelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation of the importance of biological diversity, the number of species in a particular ecosystem, to the health of the earth and human well-being.

Undoubtedly, the unbalanced ecosystem caused by growing industry damaged the earth, but the damage is also derived from the increasing population and the wanton abuse of resource. Human beings, the largest consumption biology, are increasing exponentially. Consequently, the visible crises have taken place in some developing countries frequently, companied with the population problem. A good point in case is the poverty-stricken period in Chinese history, the resource of food could not feed large amount of people in china. Some foreign sociologists had even affirmed that it is impossible for china to feed its population over 20 percents of the world with its land below 10 percents of the world. Through this hardest period, Chinese had to practise the only one child policy when it realized the burden of large population. Although it is an inhumane policy in my view, it is the only way out for china.

Additionally, all of the problems are based on the lack of resource. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural resource of the earth as endless, and they used it uncontrollably, ultimately breaked out resource crisis. While we enjoy the comfort and banal luxury of our dwellings, we don’t realize that we are deprived of the necessities of life. The modern city consists of monstrous edifices and of dark, narrow streets full of petrol fumes, coal dust gases, torn by the noise of the taxi-cabs, lorries and buses, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds. All these pictures are the ruined face of the earth which has been extracted all the vitality, only filled with a pathetic sense of being lost.

Undeniably, human beings endeavored to make the earth more comfortable to live, but these endeavors depart from the most basic principal. What is called “modern civilization” is not the result of a balanced development of all man’s nature, but the cost of harmonious of the earth and human beings themselves.

Written on 10月 6th, 2005 , English writing exercise

A dream that harbored by human beings since ancient times is to fly in the sky as freely as birds and it turned out to be a reality finally due to the invention of airplanes. As the fastest transportation vehicle, airplanes opened a new accessibility access to the sky, which was still mysterious to human beings, sparked an explosion of transportation development and fueled what we know as global village.

First of all, airplanes shorten the distance of people, not only in geography, but also in emotion. Before the invention of airplanes, people viewed going out, even to a nearby city, as far, and they sought various means, to keep in touch with their relatives far away, which formed the main topic of Chinese classic literature such as parting poems and homesick poems written in their enlisted time. Being separated from relatives is one of the most unfortunate things in life, just as the old saying “out of sight, out of mind”. However, nowadays, airplanes relieved these sadness caused by distance, costing several hours or several days at most.

Moreover, every field of human beings is the evidence of changing by airplanes more than I could shake a stick at. Take the economics for example; the high price of air ticket pushed the air companies’ severe rivalry to seek for high profits, as well as the exponential development of transportation industry. The transnational corporations are undeniably originated from the developed transportation because it makes possibility to transport raw materials globally, have meeting in any branches. Let’s get down to fundamentals and must agree that all these are based on the invention of airplanes.

Undoubtedly, every coin has two sides. Besides the convenience and efficiency brought by airplanes, national defence is facing serious menace as well. The warning bell has been striking by the tragic event of September 11, 2001 which is a terrorism assault through airplanes. The collapse of the Twin Towers, the icon for capitalism for the western world, marked the worst terrorist act ever committed on American soil and Americans were shocked and angry. Obviously, it is also the tragic in the history of airplane development. Since that, airplanes and airports are viewed as weakness of national defence and have profoundly changed the international relationship.

In conclusion, I choose the airplanes as the most important vehicle because it is the prolongations of human’s physicals and mentalities, not only surpass the values as transportation, but also become the symbol of the strength of politics, economics and culture.

Written on 10月 2nd, 2005 , English writing exercise

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